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The origin of the name Niger, which originally applied to only the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The latter nation sponsored and oversaw the construction of Nigeria's parliament buildings.[117]. Opposition leaders formed the National Democratic Coalition (NADECO), which campaigned to reconvene the Senate and other disbanded democratic institutions. "The Crisis in Research and Academic Publishing in Nigerian Universities" (2002). [79], Colonel Buka Suka Dimka launched the February 1976 coup against Nigeria's government, during which General Murtala Mohammed was assassinated. [271] Maternal mortality was at 814 per 100,000 live births in 2015. [217], The 2010 census of Association of Religion Data Archives has also reported that 48.8% of the total population was Christian, slightly larger than the Muslim population of 43.4%, while 7.5% were members of other religions. In 2003, the Nigerian Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (or EFCC) was created, ostensibly to combat this and other forms of organised financial crime.[250]. Nigeria has a highly developed financial services sector, with a mix of local and international banks, asset management companies, brokerage houses, insurance companies and brokers, private equity funds and investment banks. The World Bank states Nigeria has had a 7.4% economic growth in July, 2019 which has been their highest yet since the gross domestic product rate decreased to 2%. As oil revenues fueled the rise of federal subsidies to states, the federal government became the centre of political struggle and the threshold of power in the country. [302] Nigeria has been home to numerous internationally recognised basketball players in the world's top leagues in America, Europe and Asia. Ooni of Ife. [136] In the Sahel region, rain is less than 500 millimetres (20 in) per year and the Sahara Desert is encroaching. The coup plotters succeeded in assassinating Sir Ahmadu Bello and Abubakar Tafawa Balewa alongside prominent leaders of the Northern Region and also Premier Samuel Akintola of the Western Region, but the coup plotters struggled to form a central government. Obasanjo had recently stated on national radio that he would "deal firmly" with election fraud and violence advocated by "highly placed individuals." Babangida survived the 1990 Nigerian coup d'état attempt, then postponed a promised return to democracy to 1992. Lord Frederick Lugard a British general, was tasked by the Colonial Office to implement the agenda. Haphazard industrial planning, increased urbanisation, poverty and lack of competence of the municipal government are seen as the major reasons for high levels of waste pollution in major cities of the country. The Umunoha state in the Owerri area used the Igwe ka Ala oracle at their advantage. There they constituted a devoutly religious, educated elite who made themselves indispensable to the Hausa kings as government advisers, Islamic judges, and teachers. As Nigeria works out representational democracy, conflicts persist between the Executive and Legislative branches over appropriations and other proposed legislation. Under the Shari'a penal code that applies to Muslims in twelve northern states, offences such as alcohol consumption, homosexuality,[282] infidelity and theft carry harsh sentences, including amputation, lashing, stoning and long prison terms. Security officers rounded up the accused, including former Head of State Obasanjo and his deputy, retired General Shehu Musa Yar'Adua. Necklaces form a cone around the neck and keep the focus on the face. Their capital city was situated about 100 km north of present-day Oyo. This often leads to major explosions and high death tolls. [64] An imbalance was created in the polity by the result of the 1961 plebiscite. Most of the energy comes from traditional biomass and waste, which account for 83% of total primary production. As the British approached the city of Sokoto, the new Sultan Muhammadu Attahiru I organized a quick defense of the city and fought the advancing British-led forces. [28] They are called the Banza Bakwai meaning Bastard or Bogus Seven on account of their ancestress' slave status.[28]. [163] Despite huge deposits of these natural resources, the mining industry in Nigeria is still in its infancy. It was very modern, however, in the sources used. This contrasts with the sixteen largest fields which produced 37.9% of Nigeria's petroleum at that time.[162]. There are early historical references by medieval Arab and Muslim historians and geographers which refer to the Kanem-Bornu Empire as the region's major centre for Islamic civilization. A state council (the Oyo Mesi) named the Alaafin (king) and acted as a check on his authority. The Soviet Union benefits from Nigerian appreciation of its help during the war, but is not trying for control. The Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. [135] To the southwest of the Niger is "rugged" highland. With the spread of Islam from the 7th century AD, the area became known as Sudan or as Bilad Al Sudan (English: Land of the Blacks; Arabic: بلاد السودان). From 1880 to 1936, all births may not be included in the original data set. However, Bello chose to remain as premier of the North and as party boss of the NPC, selected Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, a Hausa, to become Nigeria's first Prime Minister. In a national television address in 2007, he added that if Nigerians did not like the victory of his handpicked successor, they would have an opportunity to vote again in four years. Established in 2010, the event takes place over a 3- to 5-day period at selected high-quality outdoor venues. In some areas of Nigeria, ethnic groups speak more than one language. Of which 60,068 kilometres (37,325 mi) (including 1,194 km (742 mi) of expressways) are paved roads and as of 1998 (west. The vast landlocked empire connected the East with the West Sudan region and made inroads down south conquering parts of the Oyo Empire (modern-day Kwara), and advanced towards the Yoruba heartland of Ibadan, with the goal of reaching the Atlantic Ocean. Others have suggested that the technology moved west from the Nile Valley, although the Iron Age in the Niger River valley and the forest region appears to predate the introduction of metallurgy in the upper savanna by more than 800 years. His successor Askia Muhammad Ture (1493–1528) made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars, including al-Maghili (d.1504), the founder of an important tradition of Sudanic African Muslim scholarship, to Gao.[44]. Lagos is the most populous city in the country and the African continent, as well as one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world. The Nok civilization of Nigeria flourished between 1,500 BC and AD 200. [211] The vast majority of Muslims in Nigeria are Sunni belonging to Maliki school of jurisprudence; however, a sizeable minority also belongs to Shafi Madhhab. In 2010, thousands of people were inadvertently exposed to lead-containing soil / ore from informal gold mining within the northern state of Zamfara. The Fulani came from the Senegal River valley, where their ancestors had developed a method of livestock management based on transhumance. Afan Music was invented and popularised by the Ewu-born poet and musician Umuobuarie Igberaese. The opposition comprised the comparatively liberal Action Group (AG), which was largely dominated by the Yoruba and led by Obafemi Awolowo. [53] and the Action Group (AG) was a left-leaning party that represented the interests of the Yoruba people in the West. [219][220][221], Among Christians, the Pew Research survey found that 74% were Protestant, 25% were Catholic, and 1% belonged to other Christian denominations, including a small Orthodox Christian community. [52] On 1 January 1900, the British Empire created the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and the Northern Nigeria Protectorate. Nigerians are nearly equally divided into Muslims and Christians, with a tiny minority of adherents of Traditional African religions and other religions. The two-party state had been a Political Bureau recommendation. [255] The rioting erupted after Muslims in the country reacted in anger to comments made by a newspaper reporter. [246], There is some major piracy in Nigeria, with attacks directed at all types of vessels. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons", "The Economic Development of Nigeria from 1914 to 2014", "Nigcomsat-1 Program --- In-Orbit Delivery Program --- Communications Satellite --- CGWIC", "Nigcomsat-1 Program – In-Orbit Delivery Program – Communications Satellite", United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan urges birth control, "World Population TO INCREASE BY 2.6 BILLION OVER NEXT 45 YEARS, WITH ALL GROWTH OCCURRING IN LESS DEVELOPED REGIONS", "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat", "The Demographic Divide: What It Is and Why It Matters", "The 10 Most Populated Countries in Africa", "China and Africa: Stronger Economic Ties Mean More Migration", "Why white Zimbabwean farmers plan to stay in Nigeria", "Africa :: Nigeria — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency", "Percentages By Religion of the 1952 and 1963 Populations of Nigeria's Present 36 States", "Kano Seeks Supremacy of Sharia Over Constitution", "Table: Religious Composition by Country, in Percentages", "The Future of the Global Muslim Population", "Table: Christian Population in Numbers by Country | Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project", "Nigeria: a secular or multi religious state – 2", "The Middle Belt Movement and the Formation of Christian Consciousness in Colonial Northern Nigeria. The Yoruba area contains a large Anglican population, while Igboland is a mix of Roman Catholics, Protestants, and a small population of Igbo Jews. Previously, the capital The NigeriaSat-2 spacecraft alone was built at a cost of over £35 million. The official language of Nigeria, English, was chosen to facilitate the cultural and linguistic unity of the country, owing to the influence of British colonisation which ended in 1960. [305] In 2015, Wellington Jighere became the first African player to win World Scrabble Championship. In order to increase the number of universities in Nigeria from 129 to 138 the Federal Government gave nine new private universities their licences in May 2015. Nok male head; 550-50 BC; terracotta; Brooklyn Museum (New York City, USA). The FMG is neither very efficient nor dynamic, but the recent announcement that it intends to retain power for six more years has generated little opposition so far. The neat protrusion from the chin represents a beard. [108] There are three distinct systems of law in Nigeria: The Nigerian military is charged with protecting the Federal Republic of Nigeria, promoting Nigeria's global security interests, and supporting peacekeeping efforts, especially in West Africa. Tertiary education in Nigeria consists of universities (Public and Private), polytechnics, monotechnics, and colleges of education. For local elections, nine parties were granted provisional registration with three fulfilling the requirements to contest the following elections. In November 1991, after a census was conducted, the National Electoral Commission (NEC) announced on 24 January 1992 that both legislative elections to a bicameral National Assembly and a presidential election would be held later that year. In the 1980s Nigerian scholarship, in general, began to decline, and the Ibadan School was much affected. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Nigeria&oldid=1017133400, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2021, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Odeyemi, Jacob Oluwole. [Note 1] The country has the world's fifth-largest Muslim population and sixth-largest Christian population,[13] with a minority practicing indigenous religions, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities. It was temporarily expelled from the latter in 1995 when ruled by the Abacha regime. seventh most populous country in the world, pacifying the heartland of the Sokoto Caliphate, National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons, Igbos in Northern cities suffered persecution, February 1976 coup against Nigeria's government, Nigerian military juntas of 1966–79 and 1983–99, Nigerian military juntas of 1966–1979 and 1983–1999, Ethnic violence for control over the oil-producing Niger Delta, Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra, Economic Community of West African States, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, Nigerian Space Research and Development Agency, Nigeria is the seventh most populous country in the world, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Lord's Chosen Charismatic Revival Movement, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The territory controlled by the Empire included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio led a successful jihad against the Hausa Kingdoms founding the centralised Sokoto Caliphate (also known as the Fulani Empire). Numerous ancient African civilisations settled in the region that is known today as Nigeria, such as the Kingdom of Nri, the Benin Empire, and the Oyo Empire. The 30-month war, with a long siege of Biafra and its isolation from trade and supplies, ended in January 1970. The French spoken in Nigeria may be mixed with some native languages but is mostly spoken like the French spoken in Benin. Nok artwork; 5th century BC – 5th century AD; length: 50 cm (19.6 in. Suffice to say Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe was the first civilian president of Nigeria, the first president of Nigeria. ", "Omnisports – Basketball : Le Nigéria toujours « Number One » en Afrique", OQTM – Nigeria celebrates 'greatest' victory, "Nigeria bobsled women qualify for Winter Olympics", "Why Nigeria produces Scrabble champions", "And The No. [173][174][175], Nigeria in recent years has been embracing industrialisation. By their projections, Nigeria is one of eight countries expected to account collectively for half of the world's total population increase in 2005–2050. Nigeria (/naɪˈdʒɪəriə/ (listen)), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Nigeria backed the African National Congress (ANC) by taking a committed tough line with regard to the South African government and their military actions in southern Africa. In terms of Nigeria's major ethnic groups, the Hausa ethnic group (predominant in the north) was found to be 95% Muslim and 5% Christian, the Yoruba tribe (predominant in the west) was equally split between Christians and Muslims with 10% adherents of traditional religions, while the Igbos (predominant in the east) and the Ijaw (south) were 98% Christian, with 2% practicing traditional religions. Other major slaving ports in Nigeria were located in Badagry, Lagos on the Bight of Benin and on Bonny Island on the Bight of Biafra. [235] As of 2019[update], the infant mortality is 74.2 deaths per 1,000 live births. Jonathan was generally praised for conceding defeat and limiting the risk of unrest. From 1959 to 1960, Jaja Wachuku was the First Nigerian Speaker of the Nigerian Parliament, also called the "House of Representatives." During the 1950s prior to independence, oil was discovered off the coast of Nigeria. At Ahmadu Bello University in Zaria, Nigeria, the Islamic Legitimist school arose that rejected Western models in favour of the scholarly tradition of the Sokoto Caliphate and the Islamic world. "A political history of Nigeria and the crisis of ethnicity in nation-building. [241], Education in Nigeria is overseen by the Ministry of Education. [276] Most workers in the informal sector are women. Fuji music, a Yoruba percussion style, was created and popularised by Mr. Fuji, Alhaji Sikiru Ayinde Barrister. Following the breakup of Mali, a local leader named Sonni Ali (1464–1492) founded the Songhai Empire in the region of middle Niger and western Sudan and took control of the trans-Saharan trade. Although the elections that brought Obasanjo to power in the 1999 presidential election and for a second term in the 2003 presidential election were condemned as unfree and unfair, Nigeria has shown marked improvements in attempts to tackle government corruption and hasten development. Urbanisation was accompanied by high levels of artistic achievement, particularly in terracotta and ivory sculpture and in the sophisticated metal casting produced at Ife. On 1 October 1995 Abacha announced the timetable for a three-year transition to civilian rule. The school was characterised by its overt Nigerian nationalism and it was geared towards forging a Nigerian identity through publicizing the glories of pre-colonial history. [35][36] He has been characterized as having first given societal order to the people of Anambra. First-year entry requirements into most universities in Nigeria include: Minimum of SSCE/GCE Ordinary Level Credits at a maximum of two sittings; Minimum cut-off marks in Joint Admission and Matriculation Board Entrance Examination (JAMB) of 180 and above out of a maximum of 400 marks are required. Lagos, city and chief port of Lagos state, Nigeria. Historically the Yoruba people have been the dominant group on the west bank of the Niger. Report[137] shows that high percentage of man-made forests in the country is dominated with exotic species. This is a figure that seems to be in the midst of a conversation. Fagg, "The Nok Culture in Prehistory", Abba Idris Adam, "Re-inventing Islamic Civilization in the Sudanic Belt: The Role of Sheikh Usman Dan Fodio. This name was coined on January 8, 1897, by British journalist Flora Shaw, who later married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator. A sign of federalism has been the growing visibility of state governors and the inherent friction between Abuja and the state capitals over resource allocation.[72]. North of this is fresh water swamp, containing different vegetation from the salt water swamp, and north of that is rainforest.[136]. Now called Calabar, the city remained an important port shipping ivory, timber, beeswax, and palm produce until 1916, when the railway terminus was opened at Port Harcourt, 145 km to the west.[51]. The Onitsha Kingdom, which was originally inhabited by Igbos from east of the Niger, was founded in the 16th century by migrants from Anioma (Western Igboland). Most of Nigeria's oil fields are small and scattered, and as of 1990, these small fields accounted for 62.1% of all Nigerian production. According to one of the various myths about him, he founded Ife and dispatched his sons and daughters to establish similar kingdoms in other parts of what is today known as Yorubaland. Western Igbo kingdoms like Aboh, dominated trade in the lower Niger area from the 17th century until European penetration.

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